Neurodevelopment Health Neuro

Neuro Development NeuroDevelopment study neuroscience and biology basics to describes the mechanisms by which nervous systems grows and connect from embryonic development and throughout life. NeuroDevelopment al processes starts from stem cell that grows to axons and neurons which are finally thought to underlie learning and memory.
NeuroDevelopment Training NeuroDevelopment training enhances brain performance just like exercising keeps the body in healthy condition.

NeuroDevelopment allows us the ability to maximize and use our intellectual, physical, and emotional strengths simultaneously. A NeuroDevelopment programs focus on enhancing mental fitness which promotes longevity, health, and peak performance.

from wikipedia Neuro Development The study of NeuroDevelopment draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology. The neural development describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. Some landmarks of embryonic neural development include the birth and differentiation of neurons from stem cell precursors, the migration of immature neurons from their birthplaces in the embryo to their final positions, outgrowth of axons from neurons and guidance of the motile growth cone through the embryo towards postsynaptic partners, the generation of synapses between these axons and their postsynaptic partners, and finally the lifelong changes in synapses which are thought to underlie learning and memory. Typically, these NeuroDevelopment al processes can be broadly divided into two classes: activity-independent mechanisms and activity-dependent mechanisms. Activity-independent mechanisms are generally believed to occur as hardwired processes determined by genetic programs played out within individual neurons. These include differentiation, migration and axon guidance to their initial target areas. These processes are thought of as being independent of neural activity and sensory experience. Once axons reach their target areas, activity-dependent mechanisms come into play. Neural activity and sensory experience will mediate formation of new synapses, as well as synaptic plasticity, which will be responsible for refinement of the nascent neural circuits. Developmental neuroscience uses a variety of animal models including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , the zebrafish Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, among others. First stage: Neurulation

Neurulation - See embryogenesis for understanding the animal development up to this stage. Neurulation follows gastrulation in all vertebrates. During gastrulation cells migrate to the interior of embryo, forming three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) from which all tissues and organs will arise. In a simplified way, it can be said that the ectoderm gives rise to skin and nervous system, the endoderm to the guts and the mesoderm to the rest of the organs. After gastrulation the notochord -a flexible, rod-shaped body that runs along the antero-posterior axis -has been formed (derived from mesoderm). the notochord sends signals to the overlying ectoderm, inducing it to become neuroectoderm, composed of neuronal precursor (or stem) cells. This is evidenced by a thickening of the ectoderm above the notochord, the neural plate. the neural plate will form the neural tube which then twists, turns and kinks to form the three primary brain vesicles and five secondary brain vesicles. the end result of this process is described in the article on the regions of the brain.
Neuroanatomy - The human nervous system is divided into the central and peripheral nervous systems. the central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, and plays a key role in controlling behavior. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the neurons in the body outside of the central nervous system, and is further subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. the somatic nervous system is made up of afferent neurons that convey sensory information from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord, and efferent neurons that carry motor instructions to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system also has two subdivisions. the sympathetic nervous system is a set of nerves that activate what has been called the "fight-or-flight" response that prepares the body for action. the parasympathetic nervous system instead prepares the body to rest and conserve energy. Fields within neuroscience There are many areas of study within neuroscience including:
Neurobiology, which aims to study cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior.
Molecular and cellular neuroscience, which integrate neurobiology with neurochemistry with the goal of understanding the cellular and chemical mechanisms of normal and abnormal brain function.
Developmental neuroscience, which studies how the ectodermally-derived central nervous system and mesodermally-derived peripheral nervous system develops into adulthood. Developmental neuroscience uses many different animal models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , zebrafish Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans.
Cognitive neuroscience, which aims to understand the mechanisms that underlie "higher level" brain functions, usually in humans. These include language, learning and memory, attention, and emotion.
Computational and systems neuroscience, which seek to understand how information is processed by the nervous system. the methods of research combine mathematical and computational models with physiological recordings of single cells, neuronal clusters, and entire brain systems.
Behavioral Neuroscience, which assesses the neural underpinnings of a vast array of behaviors, from primate saccadic eye movements to the complex foraging behavior of bees.
Sensory Neuroscience, which attempts to understand how sensory areas of the brain represent information from the outside world.
Neurology, which is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system.
Neurobiology of disease: This field, directly aligned with medical research, is interested in understanding diseases associated with the nervous system. "Neuroscience" refers to all the fields that study the nervous system. In some sense, psychology is a sub-field of neuroscience, although some mind/body theorists argue that the definition goes the other way. One of the largest related fields which shares many features of both psychology and neuroscience is neuropsychopharmacology. Neurobiology is sometimes used interchangeably with neuroscience, but it refers specifically to the study of the biology of the nervous system. Below is a list of related and overlapping fields:
Behavioral Neuroscience
Computational neuroscience
Evolutionary neuroscience
Neural engineering
Neurotheology (also Biotheology)
Psychobiology (also Biopsychology, also Biological psychology)
Visual neuroscience
Applied Neuroscience, Austria
Unsolved problems in neuroscience
List of neuroscience topics
Important publications in neuroscience
List of neuroscientists
Wikibook on consciousness
Neuroscience subfields
Cognitive Neuroscience
Computational Neuroscience
Neural Engineering
Systems Neuroscience
Bear, M.F.; B.W. Connors, and M.A. Paradiso (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott.
ISBN 0781739446.
Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000).
Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.
ISBN 0838577016.
Squire, L. et al. (2003). Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edition. Academic Press;
ISBN 0126603030
Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press;
ISBN 0121486605
Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press;
ISBN 0126186219
Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic Press;
ISBN 012088397X
Rieke, F. et. al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code.
The MIT Press; Reprint edition
ISBN 0262681080

Online textbooks

Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2001.
Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Popular works
Andreason, N. C. (2001). Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Age of the Genome. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0195145097 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0195167287 (Paperback)
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, Avon Books.
ISBN 0399138943 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0380726475 (Paperback)
Gardner, H. (1976). the Shattered Mind: the Person After Brain Damage. New York, Vintage Books, 1976
ISBN 0394719468
Goldstein, K. (2000). the Organism. New York, Zone Books.
ISBN 0942299965 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0942299973 (Paperback)
Luria, A. R. (1997). the Man with a Shattered World: the History of a Brain Wound. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
ISBN 0224007920 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0674546253 (Paperback)
Luria, A. R. (1998). the Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About A Vast Memory. New York, Basic Books, Inc.
ISBN 0674576225
Ramachandran, V.S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York, New York Harper Collins.
ISBN 0688152473 (Paperback)
Sacks, O.
The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Summit Books
ISBN 0671554719 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0060970790 (Paperback)
Sacks, O. (1990). Awakenings. New York, Vintage Books. (See also
Oliver Sacks)
ISBN 0671648349 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0060973684 (Paperback)
Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? the Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Intro to Neuroscience -
Smith College Spring 2005
Applied Neuroscience, Austria
Neuroscience Graduate Program, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Neuroanatomy is an annual journal of clinical neuroanatomy.
High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases
Society for Neuroscience
American Society for Neurochemistry
Neuroscience News Neuroscience news, forum, job listings, labs
Neurotransmitter.NetNeuroscience resources and news
Neuroanatomy & Neuropathology on the InternetHigh quality links
Neuroscience. 2nd ed. by Purves et al (online textbook)
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (
journal home)
Neuroscience for Kids
NeuroWiki, a
wiki website for Neuroscience related topics. All content (unless explicitly proclaimed otherwise) is published to the
public domain thus can be relocated to the Wikipedia.
Dana.Org for information about brain research, immunology and arts education
Neuroscience Methods and Techniques Nervous System Development -Alcohol Effects on a Fetus
Brain Development
http://faculty.washington.Edu/chudler/dev.html -

Cocaine Stunts Brain Development in Men


- Computing and the Brain -Development of the Nervous System -Embryological Development of the Human Brain
http://www.newhorizons.Org/neuro/scheibel.htm -FASlink -Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
http://www.cdc.Gov/ncbddd/fas -The Fetal and Young Child Nervous System: the Story of the Development and Maldevelopment of the Brain
http://www.vh.Org/pediatric/provider/pediatrics/FetalYoungCNS/FetalYoungCNS.html -Fetal Nicotine or Cocaine Exposure: Which One is Worse?
http://jpet.aspetjournals.Org/cgi/content/full/285/3/931 -Gestation and Human Development
http://www.sirinet.Net/~jgjohnso/gestation.html -Immune System Molecule Plays Essential Role in Brain Development
http://www.dana.Org/articles/bwn_0203.pdf - Neuronal Migration
http://web.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/neuron.html#fullsize -

Neuron Migration and Brain Disorders

http://www.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/neuron.html -

New Study Finds Babies Cry in the Womb – "Even the Bottom Lip Quivers"


the Notochord -Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Affects Forebrain Development
http://www.umassmed.Edu/shriver/research/biomedical/projects/cocaine.cfm -Skeletal development in human: a model for the study of developmental genes -Visual Development
http://www.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/visual_development.html NEUROIMMUNE INTERACTIONS -ADHD or cerebral allergy response -Allergies -

Allergy and Behavior


The Brain Center:
Food Allergy and the Brain -

An alternate pathway for T cell development supported by the bone marrow microenvironment: recapitulation of thymic maturation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.Gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9607922&dopt=Abstract -

The brain's response to allergy symptoms -

Caffeine Allergy: Past Disorder or Present Epidemic? -

Cells of the Immune System -

The Cells of the Immune System -

Cells, Tissue, and Organs of the Immune System
http://ntri.tamuk.Edu/immunology/organs.html -

Cerebral Allergy
http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.Edu/neurowebforum/HeadacheArticles/1.21.975.12PMcerebralallergy.html -

Food & Environmental Allergies -

Immune Cells
http://www.gluegrant.Org/immunecells.htm -

Immune System -

The Immune System --An Overview -

The Immune System Website -

Immunology -

The Mind- Body Link
http://web.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/mind.body.html -

http://www.dana.Org/grants/health/neuroimmunology.cfm -

Overview of Circadian Rhythms
http://www.niaaa.nih.Gov/publications/arh25-2/85-93.htm -

Sleep and Learning
http://web.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/sleep.html -

Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society
http://www.pnirs.Org -

Psychoneuroimmunology Online Resources
http://www.msu.Edu/user/chenhao/pniweb.htm -

Twenty- Nine Medical Causes of "Schizophrenia" -

Two Systems Interact
http://www.dana.Org/books/press/progressreport/pr04- Neuro.pdf -

University of Leicester: Microbiology and Immunology -

Vitamin C -The Immune Empowerer
Neurotransmission Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists
BioMed/Courses/Public/Pharmacology /ANS/Adrenergic_Antagonists -Alcohol, the Brain, and Behavior -Allosteric Enzymes -Definitions
kinetics - Biochemistry of Neurotransmitters
nerves - Brain Neurotransmitters - Cerebral Institute of Discovery - Neurotransmitters
http://www.cerebral.Org/neurotrans.html -Drug Discovery in Psychiatry and Neurotransmitters (table)

Further Advances in the Synthesis of Endocannabinoid Related Ligands


Glutamate -HD and Glutamate,WZPA:2005-28,WZPA:en%26sa%3DN -How Do Nerve Cells Communicate?
http://www.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBackgrounders/communication.htm -Introduction to DNA Structure
http://www.blc.arizona.Edu/Molecular_Graphics/DNA_Structure/DNA_Tutorial.HTML -Known and suspected neurotransmitters of vertebrate animals -The Medical Biochemistry Page
http://web.indstate.Edu/thcme/mwking/home.html - Neuropeptides
http://fred.hmc.psu.Edu/ds/retrieve/fred/meshdescriptor/D009479 - Neuropeptides and Human Sleep sleep neuro - Neurotransmission

the Neurotransmitter Collection


Neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters and Drugs - Neurotransmitters and Neuroactive Peptides

http://faculty.washington.Edu/chudler/chnt1.html - Neurotransmitters: Synthesis, Receptors, Projections - Neurotransmitter Systems Related Web Sites
http://www.chemistry.emory.Edu/justice/chem190j/relatedNTs.htm - Neurotransmitter Systems II - Neurotransmitters (Table)
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.Edu/hbase/biology/neurtran.html - Neurotransmitter Synthesis
http://web.indstate.Edu/thcme/mwking/aminoacidderivatives.html - NMDA Receptor (Google Images),WZPA:2005-28,WZPA:en&sa=N&tab=ii&oi=imagest - NMDA Receptors -Serotonin
http://www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.Edu/MBC3320/serotonin.htm -The Serotonin Synapse
http://www.chemistry.emory.Edu/justice/chem190j/Serotonin2.htm -Serotonin Synthesis

SIDE EFFECTS of PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS -Synapses -What Alcohol Does in the Brain
http://www.dana.Org/articles/dbk_0298.cfm NUTRITION and the BRAIN -
ADDers Are More Likely to Have Fatty Acid Deficiencies
http://borntoexplore.Org/omega.htm -Aging, the Brain, and Nutrition
http://cesantabarbara.ucdavis.Edu/ffsp03.pdf - Berry Facts - Blueberries for Your Health
http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.Edu/county/smith/tips/fruitsnuts/blueberriesforhealth.html - Blueberries May Restore Some Memory, Coordination and Balance Lost with Age
http://www.ars.usda.Gov/is/pr/1999/990910b.htm - Brain Food: Eat to Nourish Your Brain -Dementia/Mental Impairment -Diet and Menu for Optimizing Nourishment for the Brain -Diet and the Brain
http://web.sfn.Org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/diet.html -Dietary essential fatty acids and brain function: a developmental perspective on mechanisms.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.Gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12002796&dopt=Abstract -Doc Blum: Nutriceuticals for the Millenium -Dr. James Joseph
http://hnrc.tufts.Edu/scientists/people/jjoseph.php -
Essential fatty acids and the brain
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.Gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12728744&dopt=Abstract -Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)
http://www.chiro.Org/nutrition/EFA.shtml -Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) for Your Health -Essential Fatty Acids Improve Infant IQ -Even Mild Vitamin C Deficiency May Have Negative Effect on Vascular Function -Fatty Acids [Learning and Behavior Studies] -Fruit A Key in the Fight Against Age
the Impact of Essential Fatty Acids on the Brain -Introducing the Brain Food Pyramid -The Linus Pauling Micronutrient Information Center
http://lpi.oregonstate.Edu/infocenter - NeuroGenesis.Com - NeuroGenesis Products - New USDA Study Shows Blueberries' Anti-Aging Potential


NUTRITION and MENTAL HEALTH - Nutrition and the Brain
http://faculty.washington.Edu/chudler/nutr.html -Omega-3 Fatty Acids,1525,992,00.html -The Power of Blue
http://enews.tufts.Edu/stories/031102PowerOfBlue.htm -The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain: modulation of rat brain gene expression by dietary n-3 fatty acids
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.Gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11880617&dopt=Abstract -Science of Strawberries -Strawberries -Strawberries May Boost Astronaut Performance -STAR: Brain Chemistry Type Diet -Support for Dysthymia and Depression: Vitamin C -Strawberry Fruit Facts and Information -Sweet summer treat offers boost for your health, too -Tufts' Blueberries Research Continues to Generate Headlines
http://enews.tufts.Edu/stories/032000BlueberriesMakeMoreHeadlines.htm -USDA Natural Nutrient Database
http://www.nal.usda.Gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ -


The Vital Role of Essential Fatty Acids For Pregnant and Nursing Women

VITAMIN C -Vitamin C Can Benefit Smokers -Vitamins C and E May Protect Against Mental Decline
http://healthlink.mcw.Edu/article/954383616.html -Vitamin C May Ward Off Stroke -Your Miracle Brain by Jean Carper (An Excellent Review of Recent Findings of Nutritional Neuroscience) NEUROSCIENCE

Anatomy & Physiology I -Animations, Movies & Interactive Tutorial Links
http://science.nhmccd.Edu/biol/ap1int.htm -

http://science.nhmccd.Edu/biol/ap1int.htm#neuron -

The Animated Brain

Animated Tutorials: Neurobiology/Biopsychology -The Biotech Dictionary
http://www.thebiotechdictionary -The Brain - BrainSource.Com - Brains Rule - Brain Waves
http://utopia.utexas.Edu/project/brainwaves/ - BrainWeb
http://www.dana.Org/brainweb/ -A Brief Introduction to the Brain -Dana.Org
http://www.dana.Org -Explore the Brain and Spinal Cord
http://faculty.washington.Edu/chudler/introb.html -The Graphic Brain (samples) htm -How Your Brain Works -Milestones in Neuroscience Research - NeuralLinks Plus
http://spot.colorado.Edu/~dubin/bookmarks - NeuroBIOLOGY Molecules, Cells and Systems – Animations - NIH Office of Science Education
Science Education - Neuroscience
http://cte.rockhurst.Edu/neuroscience/page/outline.shtml -

Neuroscience: A Journey Through the Brain - Neuroscience Education
http://faculty.washington.Edu/chudler/ehceduc.html - Neuroscience Links
http://education.vetmed.vt.Edu/Curriculum/VM8104/cool_stuff.html - Neuroscience Links - Neuroscience Tutorial
http://thalamus.wustl.Edu/course/ -3-D Brain Anatomy
http://www.pbs.Org/wnet/brain/3d --Your Wonderful Brain
NeuroDevelopment and Neurobiology Links to several articles
Neuro Neurodevelopment Health 2016