Brain Waves

Brain Waves

Brain Waves

Brainwaves - Health, NeuroDevelopment and Neural Science
Brain Waves - Brainwaves are electrical impulses generated by different parts of the brain. Brainwave frequencies starts from 0 to at least 40 cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). Brain activity exhibits a mixture of frequencies at any given time. But the dominant frequency varies depending on the state of consciousness (ie: awake, anxious, angry, calm, relaxed) and on individual differences. - Alpha - Beta - Gamma - Theta - Delta: from 0 to 4 hz. Reflects the uncounciouns
Brain Waves - Brainwaves are electrical impulses generated by different parts of the brain and starts from 0 to at least 40 cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).

Brain activity exhibits a mixture of frequencies at any given time. But the dominant frequency varies depending on the state of consciousness (ie: awake, anxious, angry, calm, relaxed) and on individual differences.

The normal brainwave in the encephalogram of a person who is awake and alert; occurs with a frequency between 12 and 30 hertz. Brainwaves have diferent frecuencies along the spectrum and receive the name

Delta : 0 -4 Hz = Delta waves are frequencies from 0 to 4 Hz or cycles per second. It is associated with deep sleep and experiences of empathy and in some abnormal processes. Delta waves are the lowest brainwaves frequency is thought to represents the gray matter (cortical activity) of the brain.

This is the most predominant brain frequency during deep sleep.

Delta waves are also called delta rhythm, and emanates from the forward portion of the brain and in normal adults.
Delta waves are present only in stage three sleep, stage four sleep, cases of brain injury and coma. During sleep, delta waves are not present in the other stages (1, 2, and REM).
The delta brainwave have high voltage and low frequency and can be viewed in the encephalogram of a person in deep dreamless sleep.

In the heart a delta wave in the ECG is seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

Tare delta . These are less than 4 Hz and occur in deep sleep and also during experiences of empathy state. Delta waves are involved with our ability to integrate and let go and reflects unconscious mind.

It is the dominant rhythm in infants up to one year of age and it is present in stages 3 and 4 of sleep.

It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. We increase Delta waves in order to decrease our awareness of the physical world. We also access information in our unconscious mind through Delta.

Peak performers decrease Delta waves when high focus and peak performance are required.

However, most individuals diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder, naturally increase rather than decrease Delta activity when trying to focus. the inappropriate Delta response often severely restricts the ability to focus and maintain attention. It is as if the brain is locked into a perpetual drowsy state.

Another way to look at Delta is to imagine you are driving in a car and you shift into 1st gear.you're not going to get anywhere very fast. So Delta would represent 1st gear.

Delta (0.1-3 Hz): Distribution: generally broad or diffused may be bilateral, widespread
Subjective feeling states: deep, dreamless sleep, non-REM sleep, trance, unconscious
Associated tasks and behaviors: lethargic, not moving, not attentive
Physiological correlates: not moving, low- Level of arousal
Effects of training: can induce drowsiness, trance, deeply relaxed states

Theta -
Theta waves starts from 4 to 8 Hz. It relates to the subconscious activity.
It is the predominant frequency during the transition stage between wakefulness and sleep.
Theta waves are noted during creativity, intuition and daydreaming.
It is a repository for memories, emotions and sensations.
Theta waves are strong during internal focus, meditation and prayer.
Theta waves reflect activity from the limbic system, feelings and emotions.
Meditation Gives Brain a Charge, Study Finds. Washington Post
Alpha -
Alpha waves are from 8 to 12 Hz. Are associated with relaxation, or idling In this state you can move quickly and efficiently to accomplish whatever task is at hand. Alpha appears to bridge the conscious to the subconscious.
When Alpha waves predominate most people feel at ease and calm.
Alpha waves represent the white matter or the connections throughout the brain.
The alpha wave also occurs in the normal brainwave when a person who is awake but relaxed; and can be viewed in a electroencephalogram.
An alpha wave is a pattern of smooth, regular electrical oscillations in the human brain that occur when a person is awake and relaxed. As recorded by the electroencephalograph, alpha waves have a frequency of 8 to 13 hertz. Also called alpha rhythm.
Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR)

Brainwaves of 12 to 15 Hz represent Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR). This is associated with bodily relaxation.

Beta -
Beta is a frecuency band between 15 and 18 Hz.
It is predominant when one is focused or during periods of analytical problem solving, judgment, decision making and processing information about the world around us.

Beta waves center around cortical activity and our ability to think and access.

Beta wave is the term used to designate the frequency range of brain activity above 12 Hz (12 transitions or cycles per second). Beta states are the states associated with normal waking consciousness.
Low amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration.
Rhythmic beta with a dominant set of frequencies is associated with various pathologies and drug effects.

The beta wave is hhe second most common waveform occurring in electroencephalograms of the adult brain, characteristically having a frequency from 13 to 30 cycles per second. It is associated with an alert waking state but can also occur as a sign of anxiety or apprehension. Also called beta rhythm.
Gamma -
A gamma wave is a pattern of brain waves, associated with perception and consciousness. Gamma waves are produced when masses of neurons emit electrical signals at the rate of around 40 hertz, but can often be between 26 and upwards of 70 Hz.

By one definition, gamma waves are manifest at 24 Hz and higher, though researchers have recognized that higher level cognitive activities occur when lower frequency gamma waves suddenly double into the 40 Hz range.

Research has shown gamma waves are continuously present during low voltage fast neocortical activity (LVFA), which occurs during the process of awakening and during active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

Some researchers do not distinguish gamma waves as a distinct class but include them in beta brain waves.

Gamma waves are involved in higher mental activity and are related with higher reasoning faculties.
Transient periods of synchronized firing over the gamma waveband, of entire banks of neurons from different parts of the brain, have been proposed as a mechanism for bringing a distributed matrix of cognitive processes together to generate a coherent, concerted cognitive act, such as perception.

Gamma waves are associated with solving the binding problem. Recent studies have shown that recognition of new insights occur when patterns jump from 20 to 40 Hz. It is believed by neuroscientists that gamma activity occurs when various chemical messengers foster efficient communications across large swaths of brain tissue.

Brainwave synchronization
Brainwave synchronization is the practice to entrain one's brainwaves to a desired frequency, by means of a periodic stimulus with corresponding frequency. the stimulus can be aural as in the case of binaural beats, or visual, as with a Dreamachine.

Brainwave synchronization is a private case of functional brain connectivity concept, whereas functional connectivity is defined as the temporal correlation between spatially-remote neurophysiological events, expressed as deviation from statistical independence (temporal correlation) across these events in distributed neuronal groups and areas, which produce the brainwaves (for the recent review see Fingelkurts An.A., Fingelkurts Al.A., Kaa S. Functional connectivity in the brain – is it an elusive concept? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2005, 28(8):827-836). As authors have stated, "the functional brain connectivity has become one of the most influential concepts in modern cognitive neuroscience, especially given the current shift in emphasis from studies of functional segregation to studies of functional integration."

Frequencies that might be used in brainwave synchronization and the related brain waves and mind states.

Gamma: 26 –80 Hz. Can result in higher mental activity, including perception, problem solving, fear, and consciousness. In some studies have been linked to ESP, heightened insight, and OBE's.

Beta: 12Hz -38Hz. This is subcategorized into SMR, beta 1 and beta 2.
SMR (12Hz -15Hz) can result in relaxed focus, improved attention.
Beta 1 (15Hz -20Hz) can increase mental abilities, IQ, focus.
Beta 2 (20Hz -38Hz) can result in anxiousness and hightened sense of alertness.

Alpha: 8Hz -12Hz. This frequency can result in a state where the brain is awake, but not processing much. Often used for meditation. Also associated with a feeling of being "in the zone" and dreaming (REM sleep) and states of creative reverie.
Theta: 3Hz -8Hz. Associated with the hypnogogic state right after one wakes up or begins to fall asleep (drowsiness). Can be used for self-hypnosis. o Theta 1 (3Hz -5Hz) suppression can result in improved concentration and attention while reducing hyperactiveness (after the session). o Theta 2 (5Hz -8Hz) can result in a very relaxed sleep. This frequency range is often related to paranormal/spiritual experience.
Schumann resonance (7.83 hz) associated with the hypnogogic state, out of body experiences, and various hormonal releases. Also happens to be a set of spectrum peaks in the ELF portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. the Schumann resonance was in the Theta band. IMPORNANT NOTE: -This was magnetic constant from the earth, but it changed around the year 2000 to 12 Hz.
Delta: 0.2 -3Hz. This frequency range usually results in deep sleep.

Although some studies have shown that these frequencies do provide help in treating certain medical conditions, [citation needed] there is not a wide acceptance by the medical community to adopt the practice of brainwave synchronization for emotional/mental disorders. the fixed, constant frequency of the synchronization is less helpful than techniques such as classical neurofeedback or learning meditation, which naturally generate brain wave frequencies that differ from person to person and may vary from minute to minute.

Brainwave Sites
Neurophone - Sound Theraphy -Hear sounds directly through your body
What is the Alpha-State -and what is the benefit of it?
The Evolution of REM Dreaming: New Research Includes All Mammals
Creatology: Brain Science for the 21st Century
Resonators and their yogic application
Solar Shock Wave
Alpha Zones Peak Performance guide book for the POD-2 and Mental
Methods for Stimulation Of Brain-wave Function Using Sound
Neuro Programmer - Software that uses brainwave synchronization for any frequency possible, and can also introduce recorded or typed hypnotic suggestions.
BWGen - Brainwave entrainment software.
iMusic - Brainwave entrainment audio.
Brain Sync - Pioneers in Brainwave Audio Technology
Centerpointe -Holosync audio.
Lucid Quest - Audio Brainwave Entrainment.
Sensatio -Software that generates Binaural Beats, used for self-help, producivity and anti-stress.
SHARM - Self Hypnosis and Relaxation Machine.
Mind Media Guide - Brainwave Entrainment Software and Equipment
IBVA Interactive Brain Wave Analizer - Technologies
NeuroFeedback
What is Neurofeedback
Treating panic attacks with biofeedback: dual modality approach
Study of the effects of eeg biofeedback on cognition
Neuropathways. Introduction and EEG Imaging Technology .
Treating intermittent explosive disorder with neurofeedback
Ten year stability of eeg biofeedback results for a 10 year old hyperactive
EEG Biofeedback Training for ADHD and LD. EEG/Brainwave Bio/Neurofeedback training systems from Future Health
EEG Neurofeedback and CFS. EEG -Electrocardiogram or EKG
Alternative Medicine and Holistic Healing and Health
Can we understand or study the consciousness stage of another person
Dolphin Assisted Therapy
EEG : the Brain Waves
Elementary ECG (aka Electrocardiogram or EKG). Your Brain! EEG and ECG Spatiotemporal Isosurfaces
The Brain Wave Treatment Center. Example : Normal adult 12- Lead ECG
EEG Spectrum, Inc.
NHRC Alertness Monitoring Publications
Parallelization of Neural Network Training for On- Line Biosignal Processing
Performance Peripherals manufacture state of the art EEG brainwave Peak
EEG Based Technology. Performance Peripherals Background on brainwave peak performance training.
Brain Food. Mental Matrix. Potential Uses for the Brain Master.
A real-time eeg monitoring system. EEG vs. EDS
Learning Disabilities Breakthrough. Brainwave Training Can Reduce Learning
Changes in alertness and the EEG spectrum
Authoring Brainwave Files
MELATONIN SUPPRESSES LOW-FREQUENCY EEG ACTIVITY and ENHANCES SPINDLE
Ultra-Slow Components In The Human Sleep EEG
Medical Informatics, Event-Related Desynchronization
The Effects of Cardiac EMF Simulated Using An ECG Wave Form On Human. Electroencephalograph
TMI Research: Alpha-Frequency Binaural- Beat Stimulation
Performance Peripherals Compilation of brainwave research-with hotlinked
Medical Abstracts
Vital Energy Journal
Performance Peripherals package. Exercise Your Brainwaves!
Lexicor Medical Technology, Inc. manufactures
NIMH Cerebral morphometric abnormalities in Tourette's syndrome:
Centerpointe Research Institute Special Report
EnterQuest Subtle Energy for Personal Growth and Creativity with Vantage Quest
BGSM Effects of Cigarette Smoking on EEG Spectral- Band Power, Dimensional
Reference
Self-Regulation of Mind and Body; Insurance; Chronic fatigue
Electroencephalogram (EEG) for the PC. Electrocardiograph Technician
Performance Peripherals brainwave peak performance bibliography
Omgsic Biomedical Instrumentation
Med Market Neurotechnology. Medical Market
LATech EMBC Papers
J Neurosci Parénd Gaudreau
NCSU system - ECG monitoring
PEMED - Patient Monitors
EEG References and Information
The Hemi-Sync Process
Unizh Third Swiss Poster Meeting
Soton Education Brain Rhythms
Novix Research Co. ACLS and ECG. EKG Training Products
bae465 cv system-ECG
Insurance: TBI, PTSD
Ins and ADD
DFW Sleep Diagnostic Center
EKG MODULE_1-University of Virginia Teaching Site
Journey Toward Autonomy
UIUC gmk-presentations-94
Advanced Programmable Light and Sound Mind Machines
Parallelization of Neural Network Training for On- Line Biosignal Processing
Normal adult 12- Lead ECG
Neurodevelopment Brain Waves 2023
Corporal Punishment Changes Brain Activity, Increases Anxiety and ... SciTechDaily
Constant social media checking may affect functional brain development Tech Explorist
Poverty from fetal life onward and child brain morphology | Scientific ... Nature.com
Initial study on quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of ... Nature.com